Choosing a charging station is a serious step, the correctness of which will subsequently determine not only comfort, but also the safety of the device, the speed of car charging, the stability of the network (home or corporate), and many more factors.
When looking for a suitable model, it should be borne in mind that they are all designed for different conditions of placement and use, and also have different purposes. Electric vehicles are powered by direct voltage, however, they are refilled from sources with direct and alternating current. DC sources are capable of charging an electric car quickly, are heavy duty and are usually installed at gasoline stands. These chargers use CHAdeMO and/or CCS Combo connectors.
When refilling electric vehicles from an alternating current network (such networks are available to the public), AC-to-DC converters are installed in the car, which significantly limits the power (maximum 7.4 kW when connected to a 220V network and 22 kW when connected to a 380V network), just such power plants and sold for private use. They usually use Type 1 and Type 2 connectors. Next, we will try to describe the main types in as much detail as possible to help you make the right choice.
Ultra-fast charging stations
Ultra-fast electric charging stations are by far the fastest way to refill an electric car
These are power plants with a large capacity output per charge and with non-removable cables. The group of ultra-fast power plants includes both DC and AC stations. There are three conditional large groups:
- DC with a power of 50 kW (two types of connectors).
- 43 kW AC (single plug type).
- Tesla Supercharger is a 120 kW DC.
Ultra-fast stations are by far the fastest way to refill an electric car. They can be found on highways or large public parking lots. Such power plants provide high capacity direct or alternating current and can refill a car up to 80% in 20-40 minutes. In most cases, ultra-fast stations turn off when the EV battery is about 80% charged to protect the battery and prolong battery life.
Fast charging stations
Fast electric vehicle charging station provide single- or three-phase alternating current to an electric vehicle
Fast charging stations supply single- or three-phase alternating current to the electric vehicle. On some of them, cables are an element of the power plant, on others, only a socket is provided, and the car owner must use his own cable. Fast electric car stations can also be divided into three types by capacity:
- Power of 7 kW.
- Power of 22 kW.
- Power of 11 kW – with Tesla connector.
Fast stations refill an electric vehicle with single or three-phase alternating current and have a capacity of 7 kW or 22 kW at a current of 32 A. The refilling time at such power plants is individual and depends on the power of the on-board charger of an electric vehicle, but the 7kW charges a compatible EV with a 30kWh battery in 4-5 hours, while the 22kW charger refills compatible EVs in only 1-2 hours.
Slow charging stations
Most slow charging stations are designed for capacity up to 3 kW
Most slow stations are rated up to 3 kW and there are some models capable of delivering 6 kW. Since slow stations deliver AC current, as with fast, the charging time of an electric vehicle varies depending on the capacity of the on-board charger. For example: a full refill of a 3 kW device usually takes 6-12 hours. Slow power plants are stationary or portable.
Slow charge is a very common method of charging electric vehicles and is used by many homeowners overnight. However, the use of slow charging method is not necessarily limited to the home. They are also successfully used in public parking lots or near offices where an electric car is located for a long time. Due to the longer time it takes to refill the battery, slow charging method as public refilling points are much less common than fast ones.
Varieties of electric vehicle chargers
The type of battery ev car charger depends on the capacity of the battery. The main ones are presented below:
- MODE 1 – works from the public capacity supply. To start recharging, you need an outlet and an AC adapter. It is not recommended to use this for serial cars due to low safety. Approximate time – 12 hours;
- MODE 2 is a universal power plant used at home and at gasoline stands. Standard connectors allow you to refill electric vehicles of various brands. Refilling time 6-8 hours;
- MODE 3 – are installed on the sites of gasoline stands. Provide car refilling with single or three-phase alternating current. The maximum capacity is in the range of 7.4 – 22 kW. Charge 3-4 hours;
- MODE 4 is a charger with direct current. Installed outdoors. Allows you to refill a car with the appropriate equipment. Output capacity – 50 – 250 kW.
After reading this article, you learned the features of different types of charging stations and electric cars. Thanks to this knowledge, you will be able to choose the type of power plant that suits you, based on its parameters.