How to write an academic essay

An academic essay is an exercise in scientific writing in which you reflect on a specific question in the light of research-based knowledge. It examines a problem chosen as a topic in a critical and analytical way. For example, the essay may compare different approaches to the topic. Interpretations and perspectives. It is important that there is sufficient diversity in the treatment of the issue and that the author’s own view or perspective is clearly justified. Typically, urgent essay writing service is written solely on the basis of the research literature, but the material in the essay may also be based, for example, on your own observations in the field or on historical sources. The research literature in the essay should be sufficient for the scope of the essay and relevant to the topic. The course supervisor will give more detailed instructions on the use of literature and sources and on the nature of the essay to be written.

The essay will present a clear concern or question (research question) to which you will seek an answer through an analysis of the literature and any source material. Your own arguments and interpretations should be based on a critical analysis of the research evidence and clearly argued. The analytical and critical approach to the topic can be achieved, for example, by defining key concepts used in the essay, comparing different interpretations of the research or assessing the validity of the research findings. In an academic essay, you cannot construct your own views simply by opinion or subjective experience.

Writing an essay is a process, i.e., it requires reading, thinking, planning, editing and rewriting. An essay is not written in one go!

The language used in an essay must be factual, clear and in line with the academic and structure of academic writing. The writer must clearly distinguish between the ideas and quotations of others and his/her own thinking. The essay should follow proper scientific referencing techniques.

How do I write an essay?

Formulating the research question is one of the main challenges of writing an essay. In most cases, it is useful to formulate the research question as a question, which in turn can be divided into sub-questions. The question should be well-defined. A research question that is too broad or general will and makes it difficult to critically evaluate the research literature. The research question should guide the treatment of the topic. The reader needs to know how the issues relate to the solution of the research problem. Read the literature you use critically from the perspective of the research question.

In essays, research is often not read from cover to cover, but rather is used to find information relevant to the research question. Refer to the most important points in your selected passages. Remember to mark quotations properly with quotation marks and references. If you are not sure about the citation policy, check the university’s Do Not Cite website. Analyze, critically evaluate what you have read, and reflect on the main issues and arguments of the researchers that came up in your referencing.

Check that the introduction corresponds to what you have done in your analysis, and write the final chapter. Finish the paper by checking that it

forms a coherent whole, the content matches the title, and the language is understandable and fluent.


The essay should contain

  1. an introduction
  2. the main chapters
  3. conclusions

The text begins with an introduction, which sets out the research question, introduces the reader to the topic and justifies the perspective, approach, or theory.

  • The introduction should also pay attention to motivating the reader by explaining why the chosen question is interesting or important.
  • The introduction is followed by a logical sequence of chapters (a short essay can have only one chapter) in which the topic is discussed according to the perspective or approach presented in the introduction. The essay concludes with a final chapter summarizing the main content and findings of the essay.
  • The concluding chapter may also include a reflection on the wider significance of the findings, for example by suggesting follow-up questions or applying the findings to another topic.
  • The main title of the essay should reflect its content; a subtitle may also be used. If there are several main chapters, a table of contents should be included at the beginning of the essay.