Cd4-related Signaling Pathways

Cd4-related signaling pathways are a group of multi-protein complexes that serve as docking modules for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. T cells express clonotypically unique TCRs, which provide the specificity needed to activate a single T cell during an immune response. There is one αβ TCR complex on the surface of each mature naive T cell, and additional CD3 monomers associate with the TCR complex while being transported to the Golgi apparatus upon antigen stimulation.

The CD3 monomer associates with several proteins to complete the complex signaling assembly that includes ITAM domains found on the cytoplasmic tails of both CD3 and ZAP-70. CD4 is also known as a T helper cell co-receptor. It plays a crucial role in transmitting signals for various immune responses and regulates immune system disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and AIDS.

The activation of the receptor generally results in two distinct pathways designated as CD4AP and CEACAM2. Each of the CD4 mediated signaling pathways results in the activation or suppression of different genes, leading to gene expression programs that produce functional effector molecules. We would be looking at Caspase 8 Antibody, Fak Antibody, and Inos Antibody concerning antibody signaling.

What is CD4?

CD4 Antibody

CD4(Cluster of Differentiation 4) is a receptor cell protein found on the surface of helper T cells. The CD4 receptor binds to MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and co-receptors for the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). CD4 assists in recognition of foreign antigens. CD4 is also a glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T-cell receptor. CD4 is located on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

When a CD4+ T cell receives signals via its T cell receptors (TCR), it undergoes clonal expansion, reproducing into new cells and spreading throughout the body. These newly produced cells are known as effector cells. The most commonly studied effector cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs). CTLs kill infected host cells by releasing perforin and granzyme, which destroy the target cell membranes or DNA.

Caspase 8 Antibody

The Buster bio caspase eight antibodies has 100μg/vial, has Rabbit as its host, and has Mouse as its reactive species. Caspase 8 antibody is of the Lyophilized form and is tested with WB applications. The Caspase 8 antibody should be stored at -20˚C for one year from the date of receipt. After reconstitution, at 4˚C for one month. The antibody can be aliquoted and stored frozen at -20˚C for six months. You should avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

The caspase 8 antibody contains in each vial 5mg BSA, 0.9mg NaCl, 0.2mg Na2HPO4, 0.05mg NaN3. The antibody is Polyclonal and has no cross-reactivity with other proteins. The caspase 8 antibody validates all antibodies on WB, IHC, ICC, Immunofluorescence, and ELISA with prevalent positive and negative samples to ensure specificity and high affinity.

Caspase 8 antibody belongs to the peptidase C14A family superfamily and weighs 55.357kDa. Reconstitution of the Caspase 8 antibody should be done by adding 0.2ml of distilled water, which yields a concentration of 500ug/ml.

Anti-Caspase 8 Picoband antibody, PB9331, Western blotting

The Boster bio Fak antibody has its reactive species: Humans, Mouse, and Rat while having Rabbit as its host. The Fak antibody has a size of 100μg/vial, works with the WB application, and is of the Lyophilized form. The Fak Antibody should be stored at -20˚C for one year from the date of receipt. And at 4˚C for one month after reconstitution. To avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles, the antibody can be aliquotted and stored frozen at -20˚C for six months.

Each vial if the Game antibody contains 5mg BSA, 0.9mg NaCl, 0.2mg Na2HPO4, 0.05mg NaN3, and is polyclonal in nature. The Fak antibody has no cross-reactivity with other proteins. It validates all antibodies on WB, IHC, ICC, Immunofluorescence, and ELISA with known positive and negative samples to ensure specificity and high affinity.

Western blot analysis of FAK using an anti-FAK antibody (PB9674)

The Inos antibody has a size of 100μg/vial. Inos Antibody has humans as its reactive species, with Rabbit as the antibody host, the works with the WB application. Inos antibody is of the Lyophilized form and should be stored at -20˚C for one year from the date of receipt. The antibody should be stored at 4˚C for one month after reconstitution. Inos antibody can be aliquotted and stored frozen at -20˚C for six months. You should avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.

The Inos antibody in each of its vial contains 5mg BSA, 0.9mg NaCl, 0.2mg Na2HPO4, 0.05mg NaN3, and is polyclonal in nature. Inos antibody has no cross-reactivity with other proteins. It validates all antibodies on WB, IHC, ICC, Immunofluorescence, and ELISA with known positive and negative samples to ensure specificity and high affinity.

Western blot analysis of iNOS using an anti-iNOS antibody (A00368)

Conclusion

Cd4 and Cd4-related (CD4r) proteins regulate diverse innate and adaptive immune responses by integrating cell surface recognition of CD4 with various signaling pathways. CD4 is essential for the proper development and function of a T cell. CD4, or T cell surface glycoprotein CD4, is a surface receptor protein that binds to major MHC class II major histocompatibility complex molecules found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells.